“Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.” (Wilkins, 1993)
o Vocabulary is a core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read, and write.
o At most basic level, knowing a word involves knowing:
§ Its form, and
§ Its meaning
Principle Of Teaching And Learning Vocabulary
o According to Coady (1997), there are three approaches to vocabulary instruction and learning:
§ Incidental Learning: requires that teachers provide opportunities for extensive reading and listening.
§ Explicit instruction: involves diagnosing the words learners need to know, presenting words for the first time, elaborating word knowledge, and developing fluency with known words.
§ Independent strategy development: involves practicing guessing from context and training learners to use dictionaries.
PRINCIPLE 1: PROVIDE OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE INCIDENTAL LEARNING OF VOCABULARY
§ Most words in both first and second languages are probably learned incidentally, through extensive reading and listening.
PRINCIPLE 2: DIAGNOSE WHICH OF THE 3,000 MOST COMMON WORDS LEARNERS NEED TO STUDY
§ Knowing a minimum of about 3,000 words was required for effective reading at the university level.
PRINCIPLE 3: PROVIDE OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE INTENTIONAL LEARNING OF VOCABULARY
§ The incidental learning of vocabulary will help advanced learners increase vocabulary.
§ Explicit instruction is essential for beginning students whose lack of vocabulary limits their reading ability.
PRINCIPLE 4: PROVIDE OPPORTUNITIES FOR ELABORATING WORD KNOWLEDGE
§ Elaborating involves expanding the connections between what learners already know and new information.
PRINCIPLE 5: PROVIDE OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPING FLUENCY WITH KNOWN VOCABULARY
§ Fluency-building activities recycle already known words in familiar grammatical and organizational patterns.
Independent Strategy Development
PRINCIPLE 6: EXPERIMENT WITH GUESSING FROM CONTEXT
o The five steps procedures worth guessing from context:
- Determine the part of speech of the unknown word.
- Look at the immediate context and simplify it if necessary.
- Look at the wider context to examine the clause with the unknown word and its relationship to the surrounding clauses and sentences.
- Guess the meaning of the unknown word.
- Check that the guess is correct.
PRINCIPLE 7: EXAMINE DIFFERENT TYPES OF DICTIONARIES AND TEACH STUDENTS HOW TO USE THEM
§ Bilingual dictionaries have been found to result in vocabulary learning.
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